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== Priming  ==
 
== Priming  ==
Michael Parkin defines priming as the "psychological process in which exposure to a stimulus activates a concept in memory that is then given increased weight in subsequent judgment tasks. Priming works by making the activated concept accessible so that it can be readily used in evaluating related objects."
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Michael Parkin defines priming as the "psychological process in which exposure to a stimulus activates a concept in memory that is then given increased weight in subsequent judgment tasks. Priming works by making the activated concept accessible so that it can be readily used in evaluating related objects."<ref>{{cite book
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| editor = Paul J. Lavrakas
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| title = Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods
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| year = 2008
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| publisher = Sage
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| chapter = Priming
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=== Example  ===
 
=== Example  ===

Revision as of 08:25, 8 July 2011



Objectives

Introduction

Heading

Sub-heading

Example

Sub-heading

Example

Response Effects

Response Effects refer to the phenomenon where something about the survey process impacts the responses given by survey respondents. While it is impossible to eliminate all response effects, it is possible to reduce or eliminate the structural causes of many response effects (that is, when the structure of the survey, such as the order of questions or alternatives, the wording of questions, etc. is the cause) and minimize the impact of others (for example, response effects caused by the race or sex of interviewer can be minimized by randomization in the sampling process)

Framing

Framing refers to the use of language, words, or phrases which are likely to lead survey respondents to give certain types of answers.

Example

In one poll of adults 18 and older in York County, SC conducted in 2003, two versions of one question were included to demonstrate the phenomenon of framing. Respondents were randomly selected to receive one of the versions. In a series of questions where respondents were asked to Strongly Agree, Agree, Neither Agree nor Disagree, Disagree, or Strongly Disagree with a statement, half of the respondents received Version A of one statement while half received Version B.

Version A: "I don't mind if the government keeps tabs on regular people."

Results:
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Note: The majority of respondents value their privacy and do not approve of the government keeping tabs on them.


Version B: "I don't mind if the government keeps tabs on regular people if it helps keep us safer from terrorism."


Results:
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Note: Now, the majority of respondents appear to be willing to sacrifice their privacy for perceived safety.

Side by side comparison of Versions A and B:

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By creating a frame of "terrorism" for the question, respondents gave a different answer than they otherwise might. Whether you attribute the cause to placing terrorism at the "top of the head" of the respondent<ref>Zaller, John (1992). The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinions. Cambridge University Press. </ref> or causing them to consult a different core predisposition<ref>Alvarez, R. Michael; Brehm, John (2002). Hard Choices, Easy Answers: Values, Information, and American Public Opinion. Princeton University Press. </ref>, the result of altering their response is the same.

Priming

Michael Parkin defines priming as the "psychological process in which exposure to a stimulus activates a concept in memory that is then given increased weight in subsequent judgment tasks. Priming works by making the activated concept accessible so that it can be readily used in evaluating related objects."<ref>Parkin, Michael (2008). "Priming". In Paul J. Lavrakas. Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods. Sage. </ref>

Example

Heading

Sub-heading

Conclusion

References

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Discussion questions

Problems

Glossary

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