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Footnotes

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See also Wikipedia:Footnotes for further details on this method, specific to Wikipedia
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This page explains how to create numbered footnotes and references using <ref>,</ref>, and <references /> syntax, which is the most popular method of providing inline citations in articles.

For the policy about the need and choice of sources to cite see Wikipedia:Verifiability, and Wikipedia:Citing sources. For the second most popular method of presenting inline citations, see Wikipedia:Parenthetical references.

Inserting references or footnotes[edit]

Single citation of a reference or footnote[edit]

At the point of citation in the article, enter the footnote or reference like this:

<ref>Excel For Dummies, First Edition, Hungry Minds, Inc., 1980.</ref>

You can include formatting and links in the footnote or reference in the usual way. The reference becomes visible in the <references /> list at the bottom, if there is one.

Creating the list of References or Footnotes[edit]

At the point where you want the text of the footnotes or references to appear (usually at the end of the article in a Notes or References section), insert the tag:

<references />

The template {{Reflist}} is an alternative, mostly used if there are many footnotes.

Multiple citations of the same reference or footnote[edit]

Shortcut:
WP:NAMEDREFS

To cite the same reference or footnote several times, identify it using the name parameter of the <ref> tag.

At one of the citation points (it makes sense to choose the first), enter the reference like this:

<ref name="Perry">Perry's Handbook, Sixth Edition, McGraw-Hill Co., 1984.</ref>

Then at all the other citation points, just enter:

<ref name="Perry" />

You are free to pick any footnote name, subject to a few rules. The footnote name is internal and will not be displayed anywhere when the page is viewed. Footnote names are case sensitive and may not be a numeric integer. The quotes are optional unless the name or group includes a space, punctuation or other mark. Names and groups should be kept simple and restricted to the standard English alphabet and numerals.

Using templates to insert reference text[edit]

A number of templates, such as a generic {{citation}}, or more specific {{cite book}}, {{cite web}}, etc., are available to format the text between <ref> and </ref> tags in a more structured way. These are described at Wikipedia:Citation templates. Their use is optional: they do aid with consistent formatting, but on the other hand they can make editing more cumbersome.

References or footnotes missing[edit]

When you want to note that a reference is needed, use the template {{fact}} within the text, in the same place where the <ref> should be.

If many footnotes and/or references are needed consider tagging the article with a specific template, instead of tagging every reference needed.

What it looks like[edit]

The <ref> tags in the main text are converted to auto-numbered superscripts, and {{fact}} is expanded to "citation needed", like this:

The only reference to Excel For Dummies.<ref>Excel For Dummies, First Edition, Hungry Minds, Inc., 1980.</ref> The first reference to Perry's Handbook.<ref name="Perry">Perry's Handbook, Sixth Edition, McGraw-Hill Co., 1984.</ref> The second reference to Perry's Handbook and to another, related book.<ref name="Perry" /><ref>Nuclear Chemical Engineering (2nd Edition), McGraw-Hill Co., 1981.</ref> A statement that requires a reference.[citation needed] The only reference to Linux in a Nutshell.<ref>Linux in a Nutshell, O'Reily Co., 2003.</ref> And third reference to Perry's Handbook.<ref name="Perry" />

Clicking on a numbered superscript takes you straight to the text of the corresponding footnote or reference.

The <references /><code> tag is expanded to show the text of the footnotes or references against their corresponding numbers, like this:

<references />

For single citations, clicking on the caret (^) takes you to the point of citation in the main text. For multiple citations, the links back to the main text are distinguished by letter superscripts (a, b, c etc.). Clicking on a letter superscript takes you to the corresponding citation in the main text.

Separate lists of references and footnotes (grouping footnotes)[edit]

Sometimes it is convenient to separate explanatory footnotes from references, or to list references of a table or side box separately from the references of the text. This can be accomplished with the "group" parameter:

<code>This part of the text requires clarification,<ref group="note">Listed separately from the citation</ref> whereas the entire text is cited.<ref>Citation.</ref>

;Notes</br> <references group="note" />

;References</br> {{Reflist|close=1}}

This part of the text requires clarification,<ref group="note">Listed separately from the citation</ref> whereas the entire text is cited.<ref>Citation.</ref>

Notes

<references group="note" />

References
<references group=""></references>

Note that, at present, such footnotes cannot themselves contain reference links.

Footnotes may also be listed at the ends of each section of text by closing the {{Reflist}} template with the "close" parameter, as shown in the box just above.

List-defined references[edit]

As of September 2009, the cite software allows named references to be defined within the reference list rather than in the article text. This can make editing articles much easier, particularly on heavily cited sections. For example:

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.<ref name="LazyDog" />

<references>
<ref name="LazyDog">This is the lazy dog reference.</ref>
</references>

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.<ref name="LazyDog" />

<references> <ref name="LazyDog">This is the lazy dog reference.</ref> </references>

This can also be done using the {{Reflist}} template with a |refs= parameter. If desired, the |groups= parameter can be used to group references for the template:

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.<ref name="LazyDog" />
Amazingly few discotheques provide jukeboxes.<ref name="Jukeboxes" />
How razorback-jumping frogs<ref name="Batteries" group="note" /> can level six piqued gymnasts.<ref name="JumpingFrogs" />

;Notes
{{reflist|group="note"|
refs=
<ref name="Batteries" group="note">Batteries not included.</ref>
}}
;References
{{reflist|
refs=
<ref name="LazyDog">This is the lazy dog reference.</ref>
<ref name="Jukeboxes">This is the jukeboxes reference.</ref>
<ref name="JumpingFrogs">This is the jumping frogs reference.</ref>
}}

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.<ref name="LazyDog" /> Amazingly few discotheques provide jukeboxes.<ref name="Jukeboxes" /> How razorback-jumping frogs<ref name="Batteries" group="note" /> can level six piqued gymnasts.<ref name="JumpingFrogs" />

Notes
<references group="note"><ref name="Batteries" group="note">Batteries not included.</ref></references>
References

<references group=""><ref name="LazyDog">This is the lazy dog reference.</ref> <ref name="Jukeboxes">This is the jukeboxes reference.</ref>

<ref name="JumpingFrogs">This is the jumping frogs reference.</ref></references>

Technical note[edit]

A MediaWiki site (such as Wikipedia) must have the extension Cite/Cite.php implemented to have the <ref> and <references/> tags rendered. Extensions like Cite/Cite.php are installed after installing MediaWiki.

See also[edit]

de:Hilfe:Einzelnachweise eo:Helpo:Referencoj kaj piednotoj fr:Aide:Note id:Bantuan:Catatan kaki it:Aiuto:Note nl:Help:Referenties en voetnoten pt:Wikipedia:Livro de estilo/Notas de rodapé ja:Help:脚注 pl:Pomoc:Przypisy sk:Pomoc:Referencie sr:Помоћ:Фусноте tr:Yardım:Dipnotlar